17.2.294. MPI_Reduce_local

MPI_Reduce_local — Perform a local reduction SYNTAX C Syntax

#include <mpi.h>

int MPI_Reduce_local(const void *inbuf, void *inoutbuf, int count,
     MPI_Datatype datatype, MPI_Op op) Fortran Syntax

! or the older form: INCLUDE 'mpif.h'
     <type>  INBUF(*), INOUTBUF(*)
     INTEGER COUNT, DATATYPE, OP, IERROR Fortran 2008 Syntax

USE mpi_f08
MPI_Reduce_local(inbuf, inoutbuf, count, datatype, op, ierror)
     TYPE(*), DIMENSION(..), INTENT(IN) :: inbuf
     TYPE(*), DIMENSION(..) :: inoutbuf
     INTEGER, INTENT(IN) :: count
     TYPE(MPI_Datatype), INTENT(IN) :: datatype
     TYPE(MPI_Op), INTENT(IN) :: op

  • inbuf: Address of input buffer (choice).

  • count: Number of elements in input buffer (integer).

  • datatype: Data type of elements of input buffer (handle).

  • op: Reduce operation (handle). OUTPUT PARAMETERS

  • inoutbuf: Address of in/out buffer (choice).

  • ierror: Fortran only: Error status (integer). DESCRIPTION

The global reduce functions (MPI_Reduce_local, MPI_Op_create, MPI_Op_free, MPI_Allreduce, MPI_Reduce_local_scatter, MPI_Scan) perform a global reduce operation (such as sum, max, logical AND, etc.) across all the members of a group. The reduction operation can be either one of a predefined list of operations, or a user-defined operation. The global reduction functions come in several flavors: a reduce that returns the result of the reduction at one node, an all-reduce that returns this result at all nodes, and a scan (parallel prefix) operation. In addition, a reduce-scatter operation combines the functionality of a reduce and a scatter operation.

MPI_Reduce_local combines the elements provided in the input and input/output buffers of the local process, using the operation op, and returns the combined value in the inout/output buffer. The input buffer is defined by the arguments inbuf, count, and datatype; the output buffer is defined by the arguments inoutbuf, count, and datatype; both have the same number of elements, with the same type. The routine is a local call. The process can provide one element, or a sequence of elements, in which case the combine operation is executed element-wise on each entry of the sequence. For example, if the operation is MPI_MAX and the input buffer contains two elements that are floating-point numbers (count = 2 and datatype = MPI_FLOAT), then inoutbuf(1) = global max (inbuf(1)) and inoutbuf(2) = global max(inbuf(2)). USE OF IN-PLACE OPTION

The use of MPI_IN_PLACE is disallowed with MPI_Reduce_local. PREDEFINED REDUCE OPERATIONS

The set of predefined operations provided by MPI is listed below (Predefined Reduce Operations). That section also enumerates the datatypes each operation can be applied to. In addition, users may define their own operations that can be overloaded to operate on several datatypes, either basic or derived. This is further explained in the description of the user-defined operations (see the man pages for MPI_Op_create and MPI_Op_free).

The operation op is always assumed to be associative. All predefined operations are also assumed to be commutative. Users may define operations that are assumed to be associative, but not commutative. The ``canonical’’ evaluation order of a reduction is determined by the ranks of the processes in the group. However, the implementation can take advantage of associativity, or associativity and commutativity, in order to change the order of evaluation. This may change the result of the reduction for operations that are not strictly associative and commutative, such as floating point addition.

Predefined operators work only with the MPI types listed below (Predefined Reduce Operations, and the section MINLOC and MAXLOC, below). User-defined operators may operate on general, derived datatypes. In this case, each argument that the reduce operation is applied to is one element described by such a datatype, which may contain several basic values. This is further explained in Section 4.9.4 of the MPI Standard, “User-Defined Operations.”

The following predefined operations are supplied for MPI_Reduce_local and related functions MPI_Allreduce, MPI_Reduce_scatter, and MPI_Scan. These operations are invoked by placing the following in op:

Name                Meaning
---------           --------------------
MPI_MAX             maximum
MPI_MIN             minimum
MPI_SUM             sum
MPI_PROD            product
MPI_LAND            logical and
MPI_BAND            bit-wise and
MPI_LOR             logical or
MPI_BOR             bit-wise or
MPI_LXOR            logical xor
MPI_BXOR            bit-wise xor
MPI_MAXLOC          max value and location
MPI_MINLOC          min value and location

The two operations MPI_MINLOC and MPI_MAXLOC are discussed separately below (MINLOC and MAXLOC). For the other predefined operations, we enumerate below the allowed combinations of op and datatype arguments. First, define groups of MPI basic datatypes in the following way:

C integer:            MPI_INT, MPI_LONG, MPI_SHORT,
                      MPI_UNSIGNED_SHORT, MPI_UNSIGNED,
Fortran integer:      MPI_INTEGER
Floating-point:       MPI_FLOAT, MPI_DOUBLE, MPI_REAL,
Logical:              MPI_LOGICAL
Complex:              MPI_COMPLEX
Byte:                 MPI_BYTE

Now, the valid datatypes for each option is specified below.

Op                              Allowed Types
----------------         ---------------------------
MPI_MAX, MPI_MIN                C integer, Fortran integer,

MPI_SUM, MPI_PROD               C integer, Fortran integer,
                                        floating-point, complex

MPI_LAND, MPI_LOR,              C integer, logical

MPI_BAND, MPI_BOR,              C integer, Fortran integer, byte

The operator MPI_MINLOC is used to compute a global minimum and also an index attached to the minimum value. MPI_MAXLOC similarly computes a global maximum and index. One application of these is to compute a global minimum (maximum) and the rank of the process containing this value.

The operation that defines MPI_MAXLOC is

         ( u )    (  v )      ( w )
         (   )  o (    )   =  (   )
         ( i )    (  j )      ( k )


    w = max(u, v)


         ( i            if u > v
   k   = ( min(i, j)    if u = v
         (  j           if u < v)

MPI_MINLOC is defined similarly:

         ( u )    (  v )      ( w )
         (   )  o (    )   =  (   )
         ( i )    (  j )      ( k )


    w = min(u, v)


         ( i            if u < v
   k   = ( min(i, j)    if u = v
         (  j           if u > v)

Both operations are associative and commutative. Note that if MPI_MAXLOC is applied to reduce a sequence of pairs (u(0), 0), (u(1), 1), …, (u(n-1), n-1), then the value returned is (u , r), where u= max(i) u(i) and r is the index of the first global maximum in the sequence. Thus, if each process supplies a value and its rank within the group, then a reduce operation with op = MPI_MAXLOC will return the maximum value and the rank of the first process with that value. Similarly, MPI_MINLOC can be used to return a minimum and its index. More generally, MPI_MINLOC computes a lexicographic minimum, where elements are ordered according to the first component of each pair, and ties are resolved according to the second component.

The reduce operation is defined to operate on arguments that consist of a pair: value and index. For both Fortran and C, types are provided to describe the pair. The potentially mixed-type nature of such arguments is a problem in Fortran. The problem is circumvented, for Fortran, by having the MPI-provided type consist of a pair of the same type as value, and coercing the index to this type also. In C, the MPI-provided pair type has distinct types and the index is an int.

In order to use MPI_MINLOC and MPI_MAXLOC in a reduce operation, one must provide a datatype argument that represents a pair (value and index). MPI provides nine such predefined datatypes. The operations MPI_MAXLOC and MPI_MINLOC can be used with each of the following datatypes:

Name                     Description
MPI_2REAL                pair of REALs
MPI_2INTEGER             pair of INTEGERs

Name                     Description
MPI_FLOAT_INT            float and int
MPI_DOUBLE_INT           double and int
MPI_LONG_INT             long and int
MPI_2INT                 pair of ints
MPI_SHORT_INT            short and int
MPI_LONG_DOUBLE_INT      long double and int

The data type MPI_2REAL is equivalent to:


Similar statements apply for MPI_2INTEGER, MPI_2DOUBLE_PRECISION, and MPI_2INT.

The datatype MPI_FLOAT_INT is as if defined by the following sequence of instructions.

::.. code-block:: c

type[0] = MPI_FLOAT type[1] = MPI_INT disp[0] = 0 disp[1] = sizeof(float) block[0] = 1 block[1] = 1 MPI_TYPE_STRUCT(2, block, disp, type, MPI_FLOAT_INT)

Similar statements apply for MPI_LONG_INT and MPI_DOUBLE_INT.

All MPI objects (e.g., MPI_Datatype, MPI_Comm) are of type INTEGER in Fortran. NOTES ON COLLECTIVE OPERATIONS

The reduction operators ( MPI_Op ) do not return an error value. As a result, if the functions detect an error, all they can do is either call MPI_Abort or silently skip the problem. Thus, if you change the error handler from MPI_ERRORS_ARE_FATAL to something else, for example, MPI_ERRORS_RETURN , then no error may be indicated.

The reason for this is the performance problems in ensuring that all collective routines return the same error value. ERRORS

Almost all MPI routines return an error value; C routines as the return result of the function and Fortran routines in the last argument.

Before the error value is returned, the current MPI error handler associated with the communication object (e.g., communicator, window, file) is called. If no communication object is associated with the MPI call, then the call is considered attached to MPI_COMM_SELF and will call the associated MPI error handler. When MPI_COMM_SELF is not initialized (i.e., before MPI_Init/MPI_Init_thread, after MPI_Finalize, or when using the Sessions Model exclusively) the error raises the initial error handler. The initial error handler can be changed by calling MPI_Comm_set_errhandler on MPI_COMM_SELF when using the World model, or the mpi_initial_errhandler CLI argument to mpiexec or info key to MPI_Comm_spawn/MPI_Comm_spawn_multiple. If no other appropriate error handler has been set, then the MPI_ERRORS_RETURN error handler is called for MPI I/O functions and the MPI_ERRORS_ABORT error handler is called for all other MPI functions.

Open MPI includes three predefined error handlers that can be used:

  • MPI_ERRORS_ARE_FATAL Causes the program to abort all connected MPI processes.

  • MPI_ERRORS_ABORT An error handler that can be invoked on a communicator, window, file, or session. When called on a communicator, it acts as if MPI_Abort was called on that communicator. If called on a window or file, acts as if MPI_Abort was called on a communicator containing the group of processes in the corresponding window or file. If called on a session, aborts only the local process.

  • MPI_ERRORS_RETURN Returns an error code to the application.

MPI applications can also implement their own error handlers by calling:

Note that MPI does not guarantee that an MPI program can continue past an error.

See the MPI man page for a full list of MPI error codes.

See the Error Handling section of the MPI-3.1 standard for more information.