MPI_Comm_spawn — Spawns a number of identical binaries.
126.96.36.199.1. C Syntax
#include <mpi.h> int MPI_Comm_spawn(const char *command, char *argv, int maxprocs, MPI_Info info, int root, MPI_Comm comm, MPI_Comm *intercomm, int array_of_errcodes)
188.8.131.52.2. Fortran Syntax
USE MPI ! or the older form: INCLUDE 'mpif.h' MPI_COMM_SPAWN(COMMAND, ARGV, MAXPROCS, INFO, ROOT, COMM, INTERCOMM, ARRAY_OF_ERRCODES, IERROR) CHARACTER*(*) COMMAND, ARGV(*) INTEGER INFO, MAXPROCS, ROOT, COMM, INTERCOMM, ARRAY_OF_ERRCODES(*), IERROR
184.108.40.206.3. Fortran 2008 Syntax
USE mpi_f08 MPI_Comm_spawn(command, argv, maxprocs, info, root, comm, intercomm, array_of_errcodes, ierror) CHARACTER(LEN=*), INTENT(IN) :: command, argv(*) INTEGER, INTENT(IN) :: maxprocs, root TYPE(MPI_Info), INTENT(IN) :: info TYPE(MPI_Comm), INTENT(IN) :: comm TYPE(MPI_Comm), INTENT(OUT) :: intercomm INTEGER :: array_of_errcodes(*) INTEGER, OPTIONAL, INTENT(OUT) :: ierror
220.127.116.11. INPUT PARAMETERS
command: Name of program to be spawned (string, significant only at root).
argv: Arguments to command (array of strings, significant only at root).
maxprocs: Maximum number of processes to start (integer, significant only at root).
info: A set of key-value pairs telling the runtime system where and how to start the processes (handle, significant only at root).
root: Rank of process in which previous arguments are examined (integer).
comm: Intracommunicator containing group of spawning processes (handle).
18.104.22.168. OUTPUT PARAMETER
intercomm: Intercommunicator between original group and the newly spawned group (handle).
array_of_errcodes: One code per process (array of integers).
ierror: Fortran only: Error status (integer).
MPI_Comm_spawn tries to start maxprocs identical copies of the MPI program specified by command, establishing communication with them and returning an intercommunicator. The spawned processes are referred to as children. The children have their own MPI_COMM_WORLD, which is separate from that of the parents. MPI_Comm_spawn is collective over comm, and also may not return until MPI_Init has been called in the children. Similarly, MPI_Init in the children may not return until all parents have called MPI_Comm_spawn. In this sense, MPI_Comm_spawn in the parents and MPI_Init in the children form a collective operation over the union of parent and child processes. The intercommunicator returned by MPI_Comm_spawn contains the parent processes in the local group and the child processes in the remote group. The ordering of processes in the local and remote groups is the same as the as the ordering of the group of the comm in the parents and of MPI_COMM_WORLD of the children, respectively. This intercommunicator can be obtained in the children through the function MPI_Comm_get_parent.
The MPI standard allows an implementation to use the MPI_UNIVERSE_SIZE attribute of MPI_COMM_WORLD to specify the number of processes that will be active in a program. Although this implementation of the MPI standard defines MPI_UNIVERSE_SIZE, it does not allow the user to set its value. If you try to set the value of MPI_UNIVERSE_SIZE, you will get an error message.
The command Argument
The command argument is a string containing the name of a program to be spawned. The string is null-terminated in C. In Fortran, leading and trailing spaces are stripped. MPI looks for the file first in the working directory of the spawning process.
The argv Argument
argv is an array of strings containing arguments that are passed to the program. The first element of argv is the first argument passed to command, not, as is conventional in some contexts, the command itself. The argument list is terminated by NULL in C and an empty string in Fortran (note that it is the MPI application’s responsibility to ensure that the last entry of the argv array is an empty string; the compiler will not automatically insert it). In Fortran, leading and trailing spaces are always stripped, so that a string consisting of all spaces is considered an empty string. The constant MPI_ARGV_NULL may be used in C and Fortran to indicate an empty argument list. In C, this constant is the same as NULL.
In C, the MPI_Comm_spawn argument argv differs from the argv argument of main in two respects. First, it is shifted by one element. Specifically, argv of main contains the name of the program (given by command). argv of main corresponds to argv in MPI_Comm_spawn, argv of main to argv of MPI_Comm_spawn, and so on. Second, argv of MPI_Comm_spawn must be null-terminated, so that its length can be determined. Passing an argv of MPI_ARGV_NULL to MPI_Comm_spawn results in main receiving argc of 1 and an argv whose element 0 is the name of the program.
The maxprocs Argument
Open MPI tries to spawn maxprocs processes. If it is unable to spawn maxprocs processes, it raises an error of class MPI_ERR_SPAWN. If MPI is able to spawn the specified number of processes, MPI_Comm_spawn returns successfully and the number of spawned processes, m, is given by the size of the remote group of intercomm.
A spawn call with the default behavior is called hard. A spawn call for which fewer than maxprocs processes may be returned is called soft.
The info Argument
The info argument is an opaque handle of type MPI_Info in C and
INTEGER in Fortran. It is a container for a number of user-specified
(key,value) pairs. key and value are strings (null-terminated
char * in C,
character*(*) in Fortran). Routines to create and
manipulate the info argument are described in Section 4.10 of the
For the SPAWN calls, info provides additional, implementation-dependent instructions to MPI and the runtime system on how to start processes. An application may pass MPI_INFO_NULL in C or Fortran. Portable programs not requiring detailed control over process locations should use MPI_INFO_NULL.
The following keys for info are recognized in Open MPI. (The reserved values mentioned in Section 5.3.4 of the MPI-2 standard are not implemented.)
Key Type Description --- ---- ----------- host char * Host on which the process should be spawned. See the orte_host man page for an explanation of how this will be used. hostfile char * Hostfile containing the hosts on which the processes are to be spawned. See the orte_hostfile man page for an explanation of how this will be used. add-host char * Add the specified host to the list of hosts known to this job and use it for the associated process. This will be used similarly to the -host option. add-hostfile char * Hostfile containing hosts to be added to the list of hosts known to this job and use it for the associated process. This will be used similarly to the -hostfile option. wdir char * Directory where the executable is located. If files are to be pre-positioned, then this location is the desired working directory at time of execution - if not specified, then it will automatically be set to ompi_preload_files_dest_dir. ompi_prefix char * Same as the --prefix command line argument to mpirun. ompi_preload_binary bool If set to true, pre-position the specified executable onto the remote host. A destination directory must also be provided. ompi_preload_files char * A comma-separated list of files that are to be pre-positioned in addition to the executable. Note that this option does not depend upon ompi_preload_binary - files can be moved to the target even if an executable is not moved. ompi_stdin_target char * Comma-delimited list of ranks to receive stdin when forwarded. ompi_non_mpi bool If set to true, launching a non-MPI application; the returned communicator will be MPI_COMM_NULL. Failure to set this flag when launching a non-MPI application will cause both the child and parent jobs to "hang". ompi_param char * Pass an OMPI MCA parameter to the child job. If that parameter already exists in the environment, the value will be overwritten by the provided value. mapper char * Mapper to be used for this job map_by char * Mapping directive indicating how processes are to be mapped (slot, node, socket, etc.). rank_by char * Ranking directive indicating how processes are to be ranked (slot, node, socket, etc.). bind_to char * Binding directive indicating how processes are to be bound (core, slot, node, socket, etc.). path char * List of directories to search for the executable npernode char * Number of processes to spawn on each node of the allocation pernode bool Equivalent to npernode of 1 ppr char * Spawn specified number of processes on each of the identified object type env char * Newline-delimited list of envars to be passed to the spawned procs
bool info keys are actually strings but are evaluated as follows: if the string value is a number, it is converted to an integer and cast to a boolean (meaning that zero integers are false and non-zero values are true). If the string value is (case-insensitive) “yes” or “true”, the boolean is true. If the string value is (case-insensitive) “no” or “false”, the boolean is false. All other string values are unrecognized, and therefore false.
The root Argument
All arguments before the root argument are examined only on the process whose rank in comm is equal to root. The value of these arguments on other processes is ignored.
The array_of_errcodes Argument
The array_of_errcodes is an array of length maxprocs in which MPI reports the status of the processes that MPI was requested to start. If all maxprocs processes were spawned, array_of_errcodes is filled in with the value MPI_SUCCESS. If anyof the processes are not spawned, array_of_errcodes is filled in with the value MPI_ERR_SPAWN. In C or Fortran, an application may pass MPI_ERRCODES_IGNORE if it is not interested in the error codes.
Almost all MPI routines return an error value; C routines as the return result of the function and Fortran routines in the last argument.
Before the error value is returned, the current MPI error handler associated with the communication object (e.g., communicator, window, file) is called. If no communication object is associated with the MPI call, then the call is considered attached to MPI_COMM_SELF and will call the associated MPI error handler. When MPI_COMM_SELF is not initialized (i.e., before MPI_Init/MPI_Init_thread, after MPI_Finalize, or when using the Sessions Model exclusively) the error raises the initial error handler. The initial error handler can be changed by calling MPI_Comm_set_errhandler on MPI_COMM_SELF when using the World model, or the mpi_initial_errhandler CLI argument to mpiexec or info key to MPI_Comm_spawn/MPI_Comm_spawn_multiple. If no other appropriate error handler has been set, then the MPI_ERRORS_RETURN error handler is called for MPI I/O functions and the MPI_ERRORS_ABORT error handler is called for all other MPI functions.
Open MPI includes three predefined error handlers that can be used:
MPI_ERRORS_ARE_FATALCauses the program to abort all connected MPI processes.
MPI_ERRORS_ABORTAn error handler that can be invoked on a communicator, window, file, or session. When called on a communicator, it acts as if MPI_Abort was called on that communicator. If called on a window or file, acts as if MPI_Abort was called on a communicator containing the group of processes in the corresponding window or file. If called on a session, aborts only the local process.
MPI_ERRORS_RETURNReturns an error code to the application.
MPI applications can also implement their own error handlers by calling:
Note that MPI does not guarantee that an MPI program can continue past an error.
See the Error Handling section of the MPI-3.1 standard for more information.